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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submitted article has not been previously published in other publications, nor should it be concurrently submitted to another journal.
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice and Microsoft Word.
  • URLs for the references are provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; includes line numbers; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text complies with the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines. The article has at least 35 references that are quality, reliable, and accessible primary sources.

Guide for Authors

Manuscript Preparation. The manuscript should observe the following guidelines:

  1. Organize the paper following these major headings: Title, Author(s) and Affiliation(s), Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods for experimental study or Methodology for non-experimental study, Results and Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations, Acknowledgements (optional), and References. The References should substantially consist of articles published in current content-covered or peer-reviewed journals.
  2. Type the entire manuscript double-spaced on a short white bond paper (8.5 x 11 inches) on one side only with 2.5 cm margins all around using a Times New Roman font size of 12. References, Acknowledgments, table titles, and figure legends should be typed single-spaced or numbered consecutively on all pages including title page, figures, and tables.
  3. Leave two spaces before and after the major headings and two spaces before and after the sub-headings. Do not use footnotes; rather, use endnotes if required by the discipline.
  4. Spell out acronyms or unfamiliar abbreviations when these are mentioned for the first time in the text.
  5. Write the scientific names of species completely with author(s) when it is first mentioned in the text and without author in succeeding citations. Scientific names should be written in italics.
  6. Use the metric system only or the international system of units. Use abbreviations of units only beside numerals (e.g. 6 m); otherwise, spell out the units (e.g. kilometers from here). Do not use plural forms or periods for abbreviations of units. Use the bar for compound units (e.g. 1 kg/ha/yr). Place a zero before the decimal in numbers less than 1 (e.g. 0.25).
  7. When preparing tables and figures, consider the journal’s printed page of 5.5 in x 8.5 in and the reduction that will be necessary. Titles of tables and captions of figures should be as short as possible and understandable without referring to the text. Figures should consist only of simple line drawings, computer-generated graphics or good quality black and white photographs. Photographs should be original figures that are not electronically enhanced and submitted in a jpeg or png file. Label of figures should be of such a size so that these are still legible even after reducing the size by as much as 50%. Use preferably Adobe Photoshop CS, Adobe Indesign CS, or PDF computer-generated graphics.
  8. Cite references in the text as author (year). Writing of et al. in the list of references/literature cited is discouraged but instead all the names of authors are mentioned; references in press as (author, in press) and unpublished reference as (author, unpubl. data or author, pers. comm.). If two or more references are cited, arrange them by year. 
  9. Manuscripts should be as concise as the subject and research method permit, generally 4,000 to 6,000 words, single-space.
  10. Authors should not identify themselves directly or indirectly in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in the submission. Single authors should not use the editorial “we”.
  11. Insert line numbers (continuous) for reviewing purposes.
  12. The cover page should show the title of the paper, author(s), affiliation, and contact information.

Pagination. All pages, including tables, appendices, and references should be serially numbered. Major sections should be numbered in Roman numerals. Subsections should not be numbered.

Numbers. Spell out numbers from one to ten, except when they are used to begin a sentence and when they are used in tables and lists, and when used with mathematical, statistical, scientific, or technical units and quantities, such as distances, weights, and measures.

Percentage and Decimal Fractions. In non-technical copy, use the word percent in the text.

Hyphens. Use a hyphen to join unit modifiers or to clarify usage. For example: a cross-sectional-equation; re-form. See Webster’s for correct usage.

Keywords. The abstract must be followed by at least three keywords to assist in indexing the paper and identifying qualified reviewers. Keywords must contain four parts: discipline of the study, concepts investigation, method/process, and geographic location of study, country, and continent.

Abstract & Introduction. An abstract of about 100-250 words should be presented on a separate page immediately preceding the text. The Abstract must contain five parts written in one paragraph: introduction to the topic, chief purpose/objective, method, results, and conclusion.

The text of the paper should start with a section labeled “Introduction” which provides more details about the paper’s purpose, motivation, methodology, and findings. Both the Abstract and the Introduction should be relatively non-technical yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution. The title of the manuscript, the author’s name, and other identification designations should appear on the Abstract page.

Body. The body of the article consists of the methodology, results, and discussion.  The contents of these sections should be based on the outline according to the type of research required by the discipline. The methodology should describe the research ethics protocol undertaken in the conduct of the study. 

Documentation. In-text citations are made using an author-year format. Cited works must correspond to the list of works in the “References” section.

  1. In the text, works are cited as follows: author’s last name and year, with comma, in parentheses.
  2. For cited works that include more than one work by an author (or same co-authors) that is published in the same year, the suffix a, b, etc., is to follow the date in the within-text citations and in the “References” section.
  3. When the author’s name is mentioned in the text, it need not be repeated in the citation.
  4. Citations to institutional works should use acronyms or short titles where practicable.
  5. If the paper refers to statutes, legal treatises, or court cases, citations acceptable in law reviews should be used.
  6. Minimum number of references should be 35 combined printed and reliable electronic references.

 Conclusion. Conclusions should briefly answer the objectives of the study. They are not repetitions of the discussion but are judgments of the results obtained.